Risk Of Repeat Adolescent Pregnancy
An extensive review of the literature in 2005 revealed that a repeat or second pregnancy occurs in 19% of adolescent mothers within 1 year after delivery and in 38% within 2 years of the first birth, with the highest rates documented for non-Hispanic black teenagers with reported lower socioeconomic status. Raneri and Wiemann conducted a 48-month follow-up study in a diverse population of adolescent mothers in Texas and found that 42% of mothers were pregnant within 2 years after delivery, with 73% of those going on to deliver a second child.
Several factors are associated with repeat adolescent pregnancy occurring in less than 2 years: not returning to school within 6 months after delivery, being married or living with a male partner, receiving major child care assistance from the adolescents mother, not using a long-acting contraceptive within 3 months of delivery, experiencing IPV, and having peers who were adolescent parents.
Another significant factor that influences rapid subsequent pregnancies in adolescent mothers is mood disorders. In a study of 269 non-Hispanic black teenagers attending 5 prenatal clinics in Maryland, Barnet and colleagues determined that depressive symptoms may be an independent risk factor for subsequent pregnancy. The authors found that of the 49% of the teenagers experiencing a second pregnancy within 2 years postpartum within their study, 46% had reported symptoms of depression at baseline.
The Facts And Challenges That Complicate Teen Pregnancy
The teen birth rate in the U.S. has been steadily falling for years, but it still remains the highest rate among industrialized countries. Many of these pregnancies are unplanned, which in any population can increase the risk for problems. The biggest risk for teen mothers is delaying prenatal care or not receiving it at all.
In 2017, the birth rate for women aged 15 to 19 years was 18.8 per 1,000 women. This is a record low and a drop of 7% since 2016. This is a very positive sign.
A Baby Changes Everything: The True Cost Of Teen Pregnancys Uptick
Nate Howell has approximately 76 days to adjust to his new reality. That is when he is due to become a parent with his girlfriend, Samantha Keith, who just turned 17.
“It scares the living hell out of me, says Nate, 19, who is working at a pork-packing plant in his hometown, Elkhart, Ind. I thought Id be in college right now playing football.
Nate is one of five members of the class of 2009 whom msnbc.com has been following as part of The Elkhart Project. After high school, Nate had hoped to go to college and play football but didn’t get a financial scholarship.
Now, facing parenthood, he and Samantha are in a tough spot one that tends to come with a high price. Research shows that people who have children in their teens are less likely to get a high school diploma or go on to college. They tend to earn less in the working world, and children born to these teens struggle to keep up with their peers. For many, beating back poverty becomes the overriding concern.
The data is overwhelming that teen pregnancy has a negative impact on education and employment, says James Wagoner, president of Advocates for Youth, a Washington, D.C.,-based nonprofit. While that is a problem during any economic cycle, it becomes even more of a negative during a recession.
Samantha says that at school, she sees another reason. “Some girls as young as eighth grade who are so in love with their boyfriends and just think they’ll be together forever, they just say ‘Let’s have a baby.'”
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What Your Teen May Be Feeling
Just a short time ago your teen’s biggest concerns might have been hanging out with her friends and wondering what clothes to wear. Now she’s dealing with morning sickness and scheduling prenatal visits. Her world has been turned upside down.
Most unmarried teens don’t plan on becoming pregnant, and they’re often terrified when it happens. Many, particularly younger teens, keep the news of their pregnancies secret because they fear the anger and disappointment of their parents. Some might even deny to themselves that they are pregnant which makes it even more important for parents to step in and find medical care for their teen as early in the pregnancy as possible. Younger teens’ pregnancies, in particular, are considered high risk because their bodies haven’t finished growing and are not yet fully mature.
Teen boys who are going to become fathers also need the involvement of their parents. Although some boys may welcome the chance to be involved with their children, others feel frightened and guilty and may need to be encouraged to face their responsibilities .
That doesn’t mean, however, that you should pressure your teen son or daughter into an unwanted marriage. Offer advice, but remember that forcing your opinions on your teen or using threats is likely to backfire in the long run. There’s no “one size fits all” solution here. Open communication between you and your teen will help as you consider the future.
What Are The Unique Needs Of Teens In Foster Care And Their Children1
Regardless of involvement in foster care, all teen parents need support in becoming a parent and successfully navigating the developmental stages of adolescence. Teenagers experience significant changes related to cognitive, emotional, and physical maturity as the brain continues to develop into their mid-20s. As a result, all teen parents need strong support networks and resources in order to develop into successful adults and to parent effectively.
Teen parents in foster care face additional challenges that are unique to their situation. Teens in foster care are less likely to finish their schooling and more likely to suffer from mental illness, unemployment, and homelessness than teens not in foster care. Many teen parents in foster care have experienced maltreatment, endured multiple placements, and been separated from parents and other important people. These experiences result in significant trauma that, if left untreated, can impact their mental health and ability to form lasting relationships with a trusted and caring adult, and even their own child. And, according to at least one study, teens who have already had one child are at increased risk of having another prior to age 21.
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Take The Time To Think
Different issues will influence you and affect the amount of time needed to make your decision. The following questions may help you work out what is the best decision at this time in your life.
- Do you have support from family or a partner?
- Can you work things out through the tough times?
- What does being a parent mean to you?
- Who can you call on to offer you support emotionally and financially?
- How will this decision affect your plans for the future?
- Where do you see yourself in 1, 2 and 5 years time?
- If you are considering having a termination, it is best to have this as early as possible but it is important to take the time to make the best decision for you.
Its your right to have:
- confidential care
- safe, non-judgmental care
- respect, whatever choice you make
If you need advice or someone to talk to, please call Pregnancy, Birth and Baby on 1800 882 436.
Study Limitations And Strengths
This studys limitations should be considered when interpreting its findings. Foremost was the small sample size, particularly in analyses examining youths by their sisters and mothers teenage parenting status. The small group sizes likely reduced the power of some analyses. In addition, the small numbers precluded us from fully exploring the various family history risks for Latinas and black females separately. Furthermore, the age of the data should be considered. Data were collected as early as 1994; teenage pregnancy rates have declined significantly since that time,31 and this could have affected our results.
The sample consisted largely of Mexican American families; thus, our results likely reflect the dynamics and risk factors present within these families. Also, all study participants were female, and most were from relatively poor families. Although the nature of this sample limits the generalizability of study findings, we believe that the results are relevant to the youth represented here: nonwhite adolescent females who have a family history of teenage births. However, further research is needed among males and among more diverse adolescent populations.
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Adolescent Pregnancy And The Changing Landscape During The Past Decade
After a 15-year decline between 1991 and 2005, there was a 5% increase in rates of births to 15- to 19-year-olds in the United States from 2005 to 2007. However, the rate has consistently declined since 2007, such that in 2009, the teen birth rates in the United States reached a low of 37.9 births per 1000 females 15 through 19 years of age accounting for 409802 births. It decreased further in 2010 to 34.3 births per 1000 females, or 367752 births. Birth rates fell for other age groups as well. The rate for 10- to 14-year-olds declined from 0.5 per 1000 in 2009 to 0.4 per 1000 in 2010. The birth rate for teenagers 15 to 17 years old was 17.3 per 1000 in 2010 , down from 19.6 in 2009 , which represents a 12% decline from 2009. A similar decrease in birth rates was seen for older teenagers, aged 18 to 19 years. In 2010, birth rates were 58.3 per 1000 in 2010 compared with 64.0 in 2009.
The Importance Of Prevention
Teen pregnancy and childbearing are associated with increased social and economic costs through immediate and long-term effects on teen parents and their children.
- Pregnancy and birth are significant contributors to high school dropout rates among girls. Only about 50% of teen mothers receive a high school diploma by 22 years of age, whereas approximately 90% of women who do not give birth during adolescence graduate from high school.10
- The children of teenage mothers are more likely to have lower school achievement and to drop out of high school, have more health problems, be incarcerated at some time during adolescence, give birth as a teenager, and face unemployment as a young adult.11
- On a positive note, between 1991 and 2015, the teen birth rate dropped 64%, which resulted in $4.4;billion in public savings in 2015 alone.12
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What Can Be Done To Reduce The Risks
- Teens can prevent a pregnancy with effective and easy birth control methods that are widely available. Low-maintenance, low-cost or free birth control are available at many doctors offices and clinics. At Nationwide Childrens Hospital, the;Birth Control for Teens Clinic; provides many types of birth control for young women up to the age or 25, including low maintenance contraception such as an implant that is placed in the upper arm and can prevent pregnancy for up to 3-10 years.
- Teens who test positive for pregnancy should know their options and resources and act quickly. Being pregnant can be emotional and scary for a teen and she may be afraid to tell her parents or a trusted adult.;The Pregnancy Support Guide, developed for pregnant teens, discusses pregnancy options, resources and answers frequently asked questions about pregnancy.
- Teens who are pregnant should immediately stop all use of drugs, alcohol or tobacco products. Additionally, they should be eating a healthy, balanced diet and drinking plenty of water.
- If the teen is continuing with the pregnancy, she must schedule a prenatal care appointment as soon as possible. The;Teen and Pregnant Program; at Nationwide Childrens provides pregnant young women , and their families, competent prenatal care, education and support to achieve better birth outcomes. TaP empowers young, pregnant teens by giving them the tools to have healthy pregnancies, have healthy babies and be great parents.
Pregnant And Parenting Teens
Pregnant and parenting teens face enormous challenges in accomplishing their educational goals. Approximately 70 percent of teenage girls who give birth leave school, and, evidence suggests that illegal discrimination is a major contributing factor to this high dropout rate.
Since 1972, when Title IX was enacted, it has been illegal for schools to exclude pregnant and parenting students from school. Despite this fact, many schools fail to help pregnant and parenting teens stay in school, and some actually exclude or punish them.
Girls from around the country tell the same stories: When they got pregnant or had a child, a principal, counselor, or teacher told them they’d have to leave school. In many cases, pregnant and parenting students are told outright that they can’t stay in school or must go to an alternative school, which all too often offer substandard educations. Sometimes the discrimination is more subtle. Schools refuse to give excused absences for doctor’s appointments, teachers refuse to allow make-up work, or staff members exclude them from school activities based on “morality” codes or make disparaging, discouraging and disapproving comments.
Young people have a right to complete their education regardless of their sex or whether they become pregnant. Teens should not have to choose between completing their education and taking care of themselves and their children.
Know Your Rights Materials:
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Fathers Of Infants Born To Adolescent Mothers
The fathers role in family functioning may also play an important role in the initiation, continuation, and ultimate success of breastfeeding. Although the positive benefits of breastfeeding have been well documented, few teenage mothers even initiate breastfeeding, and of those, few sustain the practice for at least 6 months. Harner and McCarter-Spaulding studied the impact of paternal age on infant feeding method initiated by teen mothers during their hospital stay after giving birth by interviewing 86 teen mothers younger than 18 years in Philadelphia. The authors found that 30% of the teen mothers had an adult partner , and 24% reported breastfeeding while in the hospital. Of the total sample, 40% of teen mothers reported that the father of the baby had an influence on their decision to breastfeed or not, regardless of the age of the father.
Adolescent or adult fathers who maintain active participation in the prenatal, neonatal, and immediate postpartum processes with an adolescent mother have a greater likelihood of ongoing involvement with their children. Such interactions include playing with their children, giving them gifts, or feeding them but are less likely to involve diapering, bathing, and caring for the child alone. Parenting interventions can help teach such skills to adolescent fathers as well as to adolescent mothers. Several successful father programs exist, and all adolescent parenting programs should make a more concerted effort to engage the fathers.
After A Teen Pregnancy: Providing For Your Newborn
Finding a job during pregnancy or as a mom may be difficult, but definitely not impossible. If you dont already have a job, you will want to find something that can work with your schedule and does not involve any heavy lifting or chemical exposure, as these are not safe during pregnancy. When your due date approaches, youll want to communicate a plan for time off. Hopefully, your job will work with you. Remember that in many states it is illegal to fire or When your due date approaches, youll want to communicate a plan for time off. Hopefully, your job will work with you. Remember that in many states it is illegal to fire or lay off an employee due to pregnancy or medical leave. If this happens, you may want to look at your states labor laws and consult a lawyer. Providing for a newborn can mean financial budgeting or difficulty. If you are struggling, know that there are temporary assistance programs out there like housing assistance, financial assistance, food stamps, WIC, Medicaid for you/your baby, and many other programs to support citizens in times of need.
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Ensure Healthy Development Of The Child By: 8
- Ensuring the parent receives consistent medical attention, including prenatal care, to increase the likelihood of a healthy birth.
- Assisting the parent in registering for other supports such as Medicaid and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program so the child receives regular medical care, including developmental screenings.
- Connecting the children of teen mothers and fathers with developmentally appropriate resources, childcare, and services for the child, including transportation and educational opportunities.
True Story: Im A Teen Mom Success Story
What do you think of when you hear the words teen mom? That MTV series? That girl in your 11th grade history class? 17 year old girls dont usually make an active decision to become mothers while still in high school. If they do become pregnant, most of them choose to end the pregnancy or give the baby up for adoption.
We see very few stories of teen moms who kept their babies and built a happy life for themselves. But thats what Emily did. This is her story.
Tell us a bit about yourself!;
Im Emily and Im a 32 year old mom of 4 kids ages 14, 11, 9, 5. We live in Missouri. When Im not running kids all over town, I enjoy working my photography business, and cheering on the Cardinals!!
Growing up, what did you imagine motherhood would look like for you?;
I always wanted to get married and have a family young. I did a lot of babysitting growing up and always dreamed of the day I would have my own family.
What did your life look like when you got pregnant?;
I was 17 years old and just starting my senior year of high school when I got pregnant. My boyfriend and I had been together for about a year. In school I played flute in the band, and was captain of our school dance team. Outside of school I was involved in taking dance classes several days a week and even taught my own classes at my studio.
How did you feel when you realized you were pregnant? How did your boyfriend react?
Did you ever consider not keeping and raising your daughter?;
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