What Is Postpartum Depression In Pregnancy

What Is Postnatal Depression

What is Postpartum depression? Causes, Signs and Symptoms of Post Pregnancy depression PPD

Postnatal depression affects up to 15 percent of mothers after they have given birth and up to 9 percent of women during pregnancy. Depression can happen any time during pregnancy or up to a year after ppi is born. It can also occur after a miscarriage.

The symptoms of postnatal depression usually start within a first few months of the birth. You may not seem interested in your ppi or in other members of your whnau, or you may find it difficult to do everyday tasks.

Dads can also experience depression at this time, especially if their partner is depressed. Depression in new fathers is often not recognised and is not usually called ‘postnatal depression’.

The warning signs

Symptoms of postnatal depression are similar to depression at other times. They include feeling sad most of the time and losing interest in things that were once enjoyable. The symptoms might include:

  • feeling worthless, hopeless, useless
  • feeling so sad that eating and sleeping patterns change
  • blaming yourself when things go wrong, even if it’s not your fault
  • feeling anxious, panicky or overwhelmed especially regarding your ppi
  • having thoughts of suicide that may include hurting your ppi
  • not feeling close to your ppi and other whnau members.

What Are The Baby Blues

The baby blues are the least severe form of postpartum depression. Approximately 50% to 75% of all new mothers will experience some negative feelings after giving birth. Normally these feelings occur suddenly four to five days after the birth of the baby.The most common symptoms include:

  • Crying for no apparent reason
  • Mood swings with irritability and anxiousness
  • Feeling overwhelmed
  • Change in eating and sleeping

While these symptoms are quite unpleasant, they typically resolve on their own within a week to two weeks. Getting as much rest as possible and having a good support system can help these symptoms seem less severe.If you or someone you know is struggling with any form of postpartum depression, please contact a physician, a friend, or the American Pregnancy Association so that the appropriate help can be located.

Compiled using information from the following sources:Williams Obstetrics Twenty-Second Ed. Cunningham, F. Gary, et al, Ch. 55.MedlinePlus . Bethesda : National Library of Medicine . Postpartum Depression . Available from: Depression during and after Pregnancy Fact Sheet,

The Prevalence Of Ppd Symptoms Based On Epds In Hai Chau District Danang

The prevalence of PPD symptoms based on an EPDS score 13 was 19.3% . Among the 116 women with PPD symptoms, 37.9% reported having suicidal thoughts in the previous 7 days .

Table 1 includes all sociodemographic and personal variables of respondents.

Table 1. Demographic characteristics of respondents stratified with postpartum depression status.

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Depression In New Mothers

Having a baby is stressfulno matter how much youve looked forward to it or how much you love your child. Considering the sleep deprivation, new responsibilities, and lack of time for yourself, its no surprise that a lot of new moms feel like theyre on an emotional rollercoaster.

In fact, mild depression and mood swings are so common in new mothers that it has its own name: the baby blues.

Postpartum Depression Is A Dangerous Mental Health Condition Which Puts Affected New Mothers At Risk Of Being Suicidal The Issue Often Ignored Has Been Propelled To Headlines With The Demise Of Bjp Leader Bs Yediyurappa’s Granddaughter Dr Soundarya Read On To Know More About The Condition And Its Treatment

Blood test could diagnose postnatal depression before ...

Dr Soundarya, granddaughter of former Karnataka chief minister BS Yediyurappa, was in her early 30s when her life suddenly came to an end on Friday. Soundarya was a doctor by profession, member of an influential family, happily married to another doctor and mother of a six-month-old. Yet, she lost the battle of her life to postpartum depression.

Postpartum depression is a serious mental health condition that affects several new mothers in India and is rarely talked about. Most women suffer through depression and anxiety during and after pregnancy believing that it is a part of the process. It is not. Postpartum depression is a dangerous, yet treatable condition, which can put those affected at risk of suicidal behaviour.

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How To Help Your Wife Or Partner

Encourage her to talk about her feelings. Listen to her without judging or offering solutions. Instead of trying to fix things, simply be there for her to lean on.

Offer help around the house. Chip in with the housework and childcare responsibilities. Dont wait for her to ask!

Make sure she takes time for herself. Rest and relaxation are important. Encourage her to take breaks, hire a babysitter, or schedule some date nights.

Be patient if shes not ready for sex. Depression affects sex drive, so it may be a while before shes in the mood. Offer her physical affection, but dont push if shes not up for sex.

Go for a walk with her. Getting exercise can make a big dent in depression, but its hard to get motivated when youre feeling low. Help her by making walks a daily ritual for the two of you.

Anna Glezer, M.D. is a Harvard-trained clinician with joint appointments in the reproductive psychiatry and OB/GYN departments at UCSF Medical Center. She is the founder of Mind Body Pregnancy.

Frequently Asked Questions Expand All

  • What are the baby blues?

    About 23 days after childbirth, some women begin to feel depressed, anxious, and upset. They may feel angry with the new baby, their partners, or their other children. They also may:

  • Cry for no clear reason

  • Have trouble sleeping, eating, and making choices

  • Question whether they can handle caring for a baby

These feelings, often called the baby blues, may come and go in the first few days after childbirth.

  • How long do the baby blues usually last?

    The baby blues usually get better within a few days or 12 weeks without any treatment.

  • What is postpartum depression?

    Women with postpartum depression have intense feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that prevent them from being able to do their daily tasks.

  • When does postpartum depression occur?

    Postpartum depression can occur up to 1 year after having a baby, but it most commonly starts about 13 weeks after childbirth.

  • What causes postpartum depression?

    Postpartum depression probably is caused by a combination of factors. These factors include the following:

  • Changes in hormone levelsLevels of estrogen and progesterone decrease sharply in the hours after childbirth. These changes may trigger depression in the same way that smaller changes in hormone levels trigger mood swings and tension before menstrual periods.

  • National Womens Health Information Center

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    What I Tell My Pregnant And Postpartum Patients About Depression And Anxiety

    As an ob-gyn and psychiatrist, I talk with patients about mental health conditions and treatment options.

    Pregnancy and childbirth can be a vulnerable time in your life. You may experience depression and anxiety while you are pregnant or after you give birth. And you may not be sure how to get the help that you need to cope with these common challenges.

    Treatment is available, and it can make all the difference for you and your baby. As an ob-gyn and a womens behavioral health psychiatrist, I help patients struggling with mental health conditions. I see their lives turn around with treatment.

    Here is what I wish everyone knew about depression and anxiety during and after pregnancyincluding when, why, and how to find the help you need.

    What Is Postpartum Post

    What Is Postpartum Depression? | Postpartum Depression | Parents

    Postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder often affects women who experienced real or perceived trauma during childbirth or immediately after the baby was born. It is believed that approximately 1-6% of women experience postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder after giving birth.Traumas that might cause postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder include:

    Symptoms of PPTSD may include:

    • Nightmares and flashbacks to the birth or trauma
    • Anxiety and panic attacks
    • Feeling a detachment from reality and life
    • Irritability, sleeplessness, hypervigilance, startle more easily
    • Avoidance of anything that brings reminders of the event such as people, places, smells, noises, feelings
    • May begin re-experiencing past traumatic events, including the event that triggered the disorder

    Women who are experiencing PPTSD need to talk with a health care provider about what they are feeling. With the correct treatment, these symptoms will lessen and eventually go away.

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    What Are Your Chances Of Getting Postpartum Depression Twice

    Its true that if you’ve had postpartum depression before, its more likely that youll get it again after a future pregnancy. But its also quite possible that you wont.

    The risk varies from about 30 to 70 percent depending on the severity of the PPD symptoms you had with your first baby. Mothers who experienced very severe PPD are at a higher risk of developing symptoms the second time around than mothers with milder PPD.

    But many women who struggle with PPD after the birth of their first child experience no symptoms with the next. Part of the reason is that every pregnancy and every child are different. Some of the factors that contribute to PPD are totally out of your control and may not happen with every baby.

    Some of those factors include:

    And be sure to take time to make your choice with your partner, if you have one. Dont let anyone pressure you into making a decision before you’re ready or doing something you’re not comfortable with.

    Data Processing And Analysis

    The data was coded, cleaned, edited and entered into Epi data version 3.1 to minimize logical errors, then the data was exported to SPSS window version 24 for analysis. The analysis was done by computing proportions and summary statistics. Then the information was presented by using simple frequencies, tables, pie charts and figures. Bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis was computed to see the association between each independent variable and the outcome variable by using binary logistic regression. The assumptions for binary logistic regression were checked and values below 0.25 in the Bi-variate analysis were considered as candidate variables for multivariate logistic regression to control all possible confounders. The multi co-linearity test was done to see the correlation between independent variables by using the standard error. Hosmer-Lemeshows test was found to be insignificant and Omnibus tests were significant which indicates the model was fitted. The direction and strength of statistical association were measured by the odds ratio with 95% CI. The adjusted odds ratio along with 95% CI was estimated to identify factors for PPD by using multivariate analysis in binary logistic regression. In this study P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

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    What Are The Signs Of Depression

    Depression can come on slowly. The symptoms are different for everyone. They can be mild, moderate or severe. Some of the more common signs are:

    • changes in appetite, like eating too much or having little interest in food,
    • changes in sleep, such as trouble sleeping or sleeping too much,
    • lack of energy,
    • feeling sad, hopeless or worthless,
    • crying for no reason, and
    • loss of interest or pleasure in activities you normally enjoy.

    New moms with depression may have trouble caring for their baby. They might not want to spend time with their baby, which can lead to a baby who cries a lot.

    Myths About Postnatal Depression


    Postnatal depression is often misunderstood and there are many myths surrounding it.

    These include:

    • postnatal depression is less severe than other types of depression in fact, it’s as serious as other types of depression
    • postnatal depression is entirely caused by hormonal changes it’s actually caused by many different factors
    • postnatal depression will soon pass unlike the “baby blues”, postnatal depression can persist for months if left untreated and in a minority of cases it can become a long-term problem.
    • postnatal depression only affects women research has actually found that up to 1 in 10 new fathers become depressed after having a baby

    These factors are equally true of antenatal depression.

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    What Is Postpartum Anxiety

    Postpartum anxiety affects about 10% of postpartum women. These women may experience anxiety by itself or may also experience depression with anxiety. Postpartum anxiety can also include postpartum panic disorder which includes having panic attacks along with feelings of anxiety.Symptoms include:

    • Impending fear that something bad is going to happen
    • Trouble sitting still and focusing
    • Physical symptoms such as dizziness, hot flashes, and nausea

    Postpartum anxiety is treatable and often will go away once the right treatment is found.

    Living With Postpartum Depression

    Feeling depressed doesnt mean that you are a bad person. It doesnt mean that you did something wrong or that you brought this on yourself. It also does not mean that you dont love your baby. If you have given birth recently and are feeling sad, blue, anxious, irritable, tired, or have any of the other symptoms of postpartum depression, remember that many other women have had the same experience.

    Youre not losing your mind or going crazy. You shouldnt feel that you just have to suffer through it. Here are some things you can do that other mothers with postpartum depression have found helpful:

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    Causes And Risk Factors

    There is not one single cause for postpartum depression, instead, it is a combination of the sudden hormone change that takes place after birth, along with other physical and emotional changes. Changes in blood pressure, blood volume, metabolism and lifestyle all combine to create an experience that the woman has not handled before, even if it is not her first childbirth. There are also risk factors that increase the odds of a womans likelihood to slip into depression. For example, those with any of their own history or family history containing events of depression or bipolar disorder have an increased risk of postpartum depression. Stressful life events, such as moving, financial troubles, pregnancy problems and a lack of support may also increase the odds of a mother developing depression during or after the childbirth.

    What Should I Do If I Have Symptoms Of Postpartum Depression

    Postpartum Depression after Pregnancy
    • Your baby blues dont go away after 2 weeks
    • Symptoms of depression get more and more intense
    • Symptoms of depression begin within 1 year of delivery and last more than 2 weeks
    • It is difficult to work or get things done at home
    • You cannot care for yourself or your baby
    • You have thoughts about hurting yourself or your baby

    Ask your partner or a loved one to call for you if necessary. Your doctor, nurse, or midwife can ask you questions to test for depression. They can also refer you to a mental health professional for help and treatment.

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    Can Ppd Affect Your Baby

    Yes. PPD can make it hard for you to care for yourself and your baby. This is why its important to treat PPD as soon as possible. If PPD is untreated:

    • You may skip your postpartum checkups and not follow instructions from your health care provider.
    • You may find it hard to bond with your baby.
    • Your baby may not breastfeed long. PPD may make it hard for you and your baby to get used to breastfeeding. Breast milk is the best food for your baby through the first year of life.
    • Your baby may not get medical care he needs. PPD may make it hard for you to take care of your baby if shes sick. You may not see health problems in your baby that need quick attention and care. It may be hard for you to get your baby regular well-baby care, like vaccinations. Vaccinations help protect your baby from harmful infections.
    • Your baby may have learning, behavior and development problems and mental health conditions later in life.

    Getting treatment for PPD can help you feel better and be able to care for your baby. If you think you have PPD, tell your provider.

    How Is Postpartum Depression Diagnosed

    Schedule a visit with your doctor if you suspect you have postpartum depression. Your doctor will talk to you about your symptoms and feelings. He or she will ask you how long you have been feeling depressed. Your doctor may ask you to complete a questionnaire about your depression or order a blood test to check your hormone levels.

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    Is Postpartum Depression Treatable

    Yes, depression during or after pregnancy is treatable.

    “There are safe medications which can help mothers without affecting the baby. The stigma around psychiatric medicine during pregnancy bars most women from seeking treatment. However, I can assure you that we now have safe medications that do not affect the pregnancy or lactating baby,” Dr Chhabra said.

    Along with the medicine, Dr Shweta Sharma said, it is also important for new mothers to get psychotherapy. The psychotherapy helps new mothers gain self-insight and understand their feelings and emotions so that they can start to love themselves again and start being there for themselves and being there for their baby.

    What Are Symptoms/signs Family Must Watch Out For

    Post Pregnancy comes the Depression

    Having a newborn is usually such a big change in parents’ lives that often signs of postpartum depression are brushed aside as ‘normal’. However, there are some symptoms that can clearly indicate that a mother is suffering from depression.

    According to Dr Chhabra, signs of postpartum depression that family and friends must look out for include crying more than usual, anxiety, decreased sleep, decreased appetite and feeling of suffocation. New mothers who are suffering from postpartum depression also tend to have a lot of negative thoughts like – I am not a good mother, I am not good for my baby, I cannot handle it, life is not worth living, etc.

    “In India, families give a lot of attention to a pregnant woman, but as soon as the baby is born, the attention gets shifted to the baby. Families often tend to ignore or miss the signs of emotional distress in new mothers,” Dr Sharma said.

    “It is important for family members to take care of new mothers as well. So that they can heal emotionally and physically,” she said.

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