Other Consequences Of Smoking During Pregnancy
Tobacco also increases the frequency of a large number of pathologies in pregnancy:
- The risk of metrorrhagia,
- The relative risk of retroplacental hematoma is multiplied by 1.5,
- The risk of low insertion of the placenta is multiplied by 2 to 3. The placenta in smokers has a larger surface area due to hypoxia,
- High blood pressure during pregnancy is less common in women who smoke, but it is more serious when it occurs.
- The increase in oral pathologies,
- The increased risk of stretch marks,
- The increase in healing abnormalities after cesarean section, changes in certain laboratory parameters .
Smoking Is Bad For Your Health
There are lots of such warnings everywhere we go. Cigarette packs contain such warnings in which they shortly present some of the risks to which smokers expose themselves. Still, A lot of person continue to smoke, and more than that, they smoke around nonsmokers, children or even during pregnancy.
In the `40s `50s it was pretty uncommon to see a pregnant woman smoking. However, times have changed and studies try to always come up with new reasons why you should quit smoking. Check this out!
Smoking while pregnant, and not only, is a very bad idea and affects the fetus quite a lot. Danish researchers have noticed that pregnant women who smoke have a lower production of chemicals which relax the blood vessels. However, this in turn leads to a decrease of blood flow towards the uterus and to fetal development issues. Your future baby may have a lower weight, smaller length and his head will be smaller head too at birth.
Malene Rohr Andersen, a well known doctor from the University Hospital in Gentofte Denmark said: This study is one of the first studies that show a biochemical measurement of what is happening and which causes a reduced weight at birth. It`s known for over 50 years that babies born from mothers who used to smoke while expecting have a lower birth weight. This study offers a possible answer for the question Why Is the Blood Flow Diminished? The reduced production of vasodilator nitric oxide may reduce blood flow to the fetus. Read this!
Risks Of Starting To Smoke After Childbirth
Adapting to the new life may be stressful once the baby is born. Consequently, a lot of women that quit smoking may relapse soon after childbirth. Women in this situation have friends or members in the family that are frequent smokers, and so they have a low social support. If you gave up smoking while expecting your child, find out if the risk of starting to smoke again after you gave birth is high and ask for advice from a pulmonologist about how you can avoid to start again.
In addition, it`s important to remember that passive smoking represents a risk for the health of your newborn, increasing the risk asthma occurrence or sudden infant death syndrome. If you are breastfeeding, the baby will be exposed to a series of harmful substances through the mother`s milk. If you are smoking after you gave birth, don`t smoke near your child, and most important, make yourself a plan to quit smoking.
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How Bad Is It To Smoke While Pregnant
Many health issues arise from smoking while pregnant and lead to permanent tissue damage in your unborn fetus. The babys lungs and their brain can also be seriously impacted by the chemicals in cigarettes, and their growth can be stunted. Studies have also shown that babies are more prone to develop a cleft lip if their mother smokes while pregnant.
One of the chemicals in cigarettes is called carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is especially poisonous because it can block the baby from getting the oxygen that it needs to survive. If a baby cant get enough oxygen and is poisoned by carbon dioxide while in the womb, it raises the chances of a baby being stillborn at birth.
A high heart rate is likely to develop in a fetus if a pregnant woman smokes. Having a high heart rate is a dangerous condition that can lead to strokes, heart attacks, or even death. It is incredibly important to have a strong heart rate.
Effects On Ongoing Pregnancy
Smoking during pregnancy can lead to a plethora of health risks to both the mother and the fetus.
Women who smoke during pregnancy are about twice as likely to experience the following pregnancy complications:
- premature rupture of membranes, which means that the amniotic sac will rupture prematurely, and will induce labour before the baby is fully developed. Although this complication generally has a good prognosis , it causes stress as the premature child may have to stay in the hospital to gain health and strength to be able to sustain life on their own.
- placental abruption, wherein there is premature separation of the placenta from the attachment site. The fetus can be put in distress, and can even die. The mother can lose blood and can have a haemorrhage they may need a blood transfusion.
- placenta previa, where in the placenta grows in the lowest part of the uterus and covers all or part of the opening to the cervix. Having placenta previa is an economic stress as well because it requires having a caesarean section delivery, which require a longer recovery period in the hospital. There can also be complications, such as maternal hemorrhage.
Implications for the umbilical cord
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What Does Nicotine Do To Babies
Your baby gets less oxygen and food because nicotine from cigarettes tightens up your blood vessels. Your baby gets less oxygen when carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas from cigarettes, gets into your bloodstream. Carbon monoxide can also cause your baby to grow less and reduce your babys brain weight.
Smoking During Pregnancy And Birthweight
Children whose mothers smoked while pregnant were more likely to have a lower birthweight, and were also at greater risk of infant death. In fact, NCDS found that smoking during pregnancy cut babies birth weight by an average of 170 grams, and heavy smoking increased the risk of infant death by 28 per cent. The risk went up the more cigarettes a woman smoked. Women who smoked while pregnant also reported a higher rate of spontaneous abortion.
The study also found that if women gave up smoking before the fourth month of pregnancy, their babies had no greater risk of dying than those whose mothers had never smoked.
The researchers believed women from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were at an additional risk. Because babies of working class women were already more likely to be smaller, the effects of smoking during pregnancy on birthweight was even more deadly.
At the time, researchers estimated that 1,500 more babies would survive every year if women gave up smoking.
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Benefits Of Quitting Smoking
The CDC also has a lot to say about the benefits of quitting. Even if youre still smoking into your pregnancy, quitting will help you and your baby. Your baby will get more oxygen, even after just one day of not smoking!
The risks of tobacco use and pregnancy decrease if you quit, including:
- Less risk that your baby will be born too early.
- Better chance that your baby will come home from the hospital with you.
- You will be less likely to develop heart disease, cancer and so on, so
- You will be more likely to live to know your grandchildren.
- You will have more energy and breathe more easily.
- Your clothes, hair and home will smell better.
- Your food will taste better.
- You will have more money that you can spend on other things.
- You will feel good about what you have done for yourself and your baby.
Why put you and your baby up against the all-too-apparent dangers of smoking during pregnancy?
There are so many reasons tobacco use and pregnancy will put your health in danger, along with the health of your child. It isnt easy to quit, but speak to your doctor to get the support and help you need. Make the effort for you and your baby.
The Toxicity Of Tobacco
The composition of tobacco smoke is complex. It depends on the type of tobacco, the additives and the method of consumption. Over 4000 substances have been identified.
- 10 to 15% carbon dioxide.
- 3 to 6% carbon monoxide.
- 0.1 to 0.2% hydrocyanic acid,
- Volatile organic compounds such as aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons.
- Carcinogenic substances .
- Irritants .
- Free radicals .
The main constituents of tobacco have the capacity to cross the placental barrier and reach the fetus. The maternal level of carboxyhemoglobin varies from 5 to 15% for a consumption of 20 cigarettes per day and that of the fetus is equal to 1.8 times that of the mother.
The consumption of tobacco can be assessed precisely by the dosage of cotinine. Cotinine represents 80% of the breakdown products of nicotine. It is present in all biological media . Cotinine is found in the fetus and in the amniotic fluid .
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The Effects Of Tobacco On Newborns And Infants
There is no increased risk of neonatal death in children born after exposure to tobacco during pregnancy, but there is an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. This risk, apparently dose dependent, would be multiplied by 2 if the mother smoked during pregnancy.
In addition, the frequency and duration of obstructive sleep apnea are higher in children of smoking mothers. The duration of apnea is linked to the number of cigarettes smoked by the mother.
Is It Bad To Inhale Smoke While Pregnant
If you are exposed to second-hand smoke during pregnancy, both you and your baby are put at risk. Some of the health conditions associated with being exposed to second-hand smoke are a miscarriage, low birth weight, early birth, learning or behavioral deficiencies in your child, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome .
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The Effects Of Smoking Weed While Pregnant
Recent research claims that maternal marijuana use is not an independent risk factor for negative outcomes. A systematic review, led by Doctor Shayna Connor and published in Obstetrics and Gynecology in October 2016, found no statistical correlation between the use of cannabis and any negative birth outcome. The authors suggested that negative outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weights could be due to using cannabis with tobacco.
Studies have shown that heavy cannabis consumption early in pregnancy can increase the risk of behavioral issues.
However, although Connors study revealed no independent link between marijuana and birth complications, she is still wary about recommending it to pregnant women. For starters, the study did not look at long-term behavioral and health impacts in the child.
If a woman insists on using marijuana while pregnant, moderation is key. A handful of studies have shown that heavy cannabis consumption early in the pregnancy can increase the risk of behavioral issues later in the childs life.
An Increased Risk Of Infertility
The toxic substances contained in tobacco damage DNA and human cells: smoking cigarettes thus leads to a decrease in fertility by disrupting sperm production in men and by reducing the number of oocytes per ovary in women.
Some epidemiological studies have shown that smoking delays conception by an average of two months and that this effect is directly related to the number of cigarettes people smoke. A meta-analysis of studies even found that smoking increased the risk of infertility in women by 60%.
Fortunately, this detrimental effect on fertility appears to be reversible: over time ex-smokers recover the same fertility rates of those who have never smoked.
The success rate of in vitro fertilization is also reduced. Stopping smoking greatly increases fertility and fertility.
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How Can I Quit Smoking Before Or During Pregnancy
Here are some tips that may help you kick the habit:
- Hide your matches, lighters, and ashtrays.
- Designate your home a no-smoking area.
- Ask people who smoke not to smoke around you.
- Drink fewer caffeinated beverages caffeine may stimulate your urge to smoke. Also avoid alcohol, as it may also increase your urge to smoke and can be harmful to your baby.
- Change your habits connected with smoking. If you smoked while driving or when feeling stressed, try other activities to replace smoking.
- Keep mints or gum on hand for those times when you get the urge to smoke.
- Stay active to keep your mind off smoking and help relieve tension: take a walk, exercise, read a book, or try a new hobby.
- Look for support from others. Join a support group or smoking cessation program.
- Do not go to places where many people are smoking such as bars or clubs, and smoking sections of restaurants.
Study Design Population And Data Collection
This is a sub-study of a multinational, cross-sectional, web-based study conducted in countries in Western, Northern, and Eastern Europe, South America, North America, and Australia, investigating medication use in pregnancy with focus on attitudes, perception of risk, and mental well-being . For this study, we included only European countries . Both pregnant women at any gestational week and new mothers with a child younger than one year old were eligible to participate. Data were collected using an anonymous, self-completed, online questionnaire that was accessible for a period of 2 months in each participating country between October 2011 and February 2012.
The questionnaire was open to the public via utilization of banners on national websites and/or social networks commonly visited and consulted by pregnant women and/or new mothers. Information about recruitment tools utilized and Internet penetration rates in each participating country are described in detail elsewhere . Here, the studys external validity was assessed by comparing sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics of the sample on an individual country level with those of the general birthing population in the country . Overall, the birthing population in each participating country was reflected adequately by the sample with respect to age and smoking habits.
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Benefits Of Stopping Smoking In Pregnancy
Stopping smoking will help both you and your baby immediately. Harmful gases, such as carbon monoxide, and other damaging chemicals will clear from your body. When you stop smoking:
- you will reduce the risk of complications in pregnancy and birth
- you are more likely to have a healthier pregnancy and a healthier baby
- you will reduce the risk of stillbirth
- your baby is less likely to be born too early and have to face the breathing, feeding and health problems that often go with being premature
- your baby is less likely to be born with a low birth weight. Babies of smokers are, on average, 200g lighter than other babies, which can cause problems during and after labour. For example, they are more likely to have problems keeping warm and are more likely to get infections
- you will reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome , also known as “cot death”.
Stopping smoking now will also help your baby later in life. Children whose parents smoke are more likely to suffer from asthma and other serious illnesses that may need hospital treatment.
The sooner you stop smoking, the better. But even if you stop in the last few weeks of your pregnancy this will benefit you and your baby.
Does Using Marijuana Affect Breastfeeding
- Chemicals from marijuana can be passed to your baby through breast milk. THC is stored in fat and is slowly released over time, meaning your baby could still be exposed even after you stop using marijuana.
- However, data on the effects of marijuana exposure to your baby through breastfeeding are limited and conflicting. To limit potential risk to the infant, breastfeeding mothers should avoid marijuana use.11, 1416
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Smoking And Other Consequences
The negative consequences of smoking during pregnancy persisted as children grew up. At age 7, children whose mothers had smoked were shorter than their peers, and they were more likely to have wheezing illness after age 16.
Children whose mothers had smoked also did poorer on cognitive assessments when they were young. In fact, their reading age was, on average, four months behind those whose mothers had not smoked. By the time they reached early adulthood, these children were more likely to be overweight and had fewer educational qualifications than their peers.
Is It Safe To Use E
No. E-cigarettes contain chemicals, like nicotine, that can harm you and your baby. Flavors and other chemicals in e-cigarettes may be harmful to you and your baby. Breathing in someone elses e-cigarette vapor also may be harmful. More research is needed to better understand how e-cigarettes affect women and babies during pregnancy.
If youre pregnant and using e-cigarettes, talk to your health care provider about quitting.
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How Will I Feel When I Quit Smoking
The benefits of not smoking start within days of quitting. After you quit, you and your baby’s heartbeat will return to normal, and your baby will be less likely to develop breathing problems.
You might have symptoms of withdrawal because your body is used to nicotine, the addictive substance in cigarettes. You might crave cigarettes, be irritable, feel fatigued and very hungry, cough often, get headaches, or have difficulty concentrating.
The withdrawal symptoms are only temporary. They are strongest when you first quit but will go away within 10 to 14 days. When withdrawal symptoms occur, stay in control. Think about your reasons for quitting. Remind yourself that these are signs that your body is healing and getting used to being without cigarettes. Remember that withdrawal symptoms are easier to treat than the major diseases that smoking can cause.
Even after the withdrawal is over, expect periodic urges to smoke. However, these cravings are generally brief and will go away whether you smoke or not. Don’t smoke.
If you smoke again do not lose hope. Seventy-five percent of those who quit relapse. Most smokers quit three times before they are successful. If you relapse, don’t give up. Plan ahead and think about what you will do next time you get the urge to smoke.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 12/31/2017.